Research by Potter-Belmar Labs

Not all cinema happens in the movie theater and cineplex. A variety of artforms, including art video installations, experimental film, early motion picture viewing devices, pre-motion picture spectacles, live cinema and the work of contemporary DJs and VJs are related through the medium of cinema.

Cinema implies: scale, multisensory and/or time-based
as distinguished from forms of theater and dance
Perhaps Cinema can be defined as Moving image and Immersive Art

Potter-Belmar Labs in 2005.
Potter-Belmar Labs in 2005.

This wiki presents the ongoing research in this field of Leslie Raymond and Jason Jay Stevens.

Visit definition pages, including cinema.

Live Cinema

"… real-time mixing of images and sound for an audience, where the sounds and images no longer exist in a fixed and finished form but evolve as they occur, and the artist's role becomes performative…" Holly Willis (Afterimage July/Aug 2009, Vol 37, No 1, p. 11)

Expanded Cinema

Expanded cinema is a term coined by Gene Youngblood in his 1971 book, Expanded Cinema. Stan VanDerBeek is the originator of the term "expanded cinema." The range of art covered by the term has grown as different interpretations arise, and, for lack of any better term, encompasses much time-based art, largely experiential and multimedia, generally involving some form of moving image and presenting an alternative to mass media moving image culture.

Some researchers and artists, notably Ken Jacobs, have proposed the term, transmedia, for works of art in this admittedly loose category. However, as a widely distributed magazine by the name of Transmedia attests, this term is, at large, associated with b-movie film genres.

“…the expansion of the commonplace form of film on the open stage or within a space, through which the commercial-conventional sequence of filmmaking – shooting, editing (montage), and projection – is broken up…” Valie Export
from: “Expanded Cinema as Expanded Reality,” Senses of Cinema, 28, (September/October 2003).

It is important to note that Export's definition is, while quite useful, an over-simplification when regarded in relation to Gene Youngblood's seminal text, Expanded Cinema, (New York: E. P. Dutton, 1970) in which he discusses the possibilities of new moving image technologies to impact an expanded consciousness.


Motion picture and other experiential arts made prior to the popularization of movies are protocinema.
The broader category of precinema implies all forms related to or historically displaced by the advent of the motion picture, but unlike protocinema, is not restricted to that which is a technical precedent.
We haven't necessarily been very tidy about keeping to this convention in this Wiki.
Protocinema and Precinema includes: cinéorama, cosmorama, eidophusikon, mareorama and moving panorama.

Deceptive Art

Scholar Laurent Mannoni coined the term, Deceptive Art, which "consists of playing with images, transforming them with light, refining them with optics, animating, deforming and cropping them, and juggling with the laws of perspective. Fixed and moving shadows: silhouettes; tricks with mirrors; camera obscuras and lucidas; anamorphoses; peep-shows; dioptrical paradoxes; magic lanterns; phantasmagorias; stroboscopic discs; zoetrope strips; seditious, faked, panoramic, dioramic or day-night transformation images; chronophotographic and cinematographic pictures, and so on, all flow into this current and form an immense body of production in the history of the sciences and the arts." (Eyes, Lies and Illusions, 2004, p.43)


Richard Wagner explained his concept of Gesamtkunstwerk, or Total Art Work, in a series of essays between 1849 and 1852 synthesis of all the poetic, visual, musical and dramatic arts, and came closest to realizing it in his Ring Cycle. Many scholars and artists have traced multimedia installation and performance art to this concept.
The 1916 Futurist Manifesto declared cinema would combine all of the arts into a new artform.


German abstract painter Walther Ruttmann wrote in 1919 about 'painting with time,' which he believed would be accomplished through film, "And so a type of artist will emerge who is quite new and previously only latently in existence, placed somewhere between painting and music."


Claire Bishop [Participation, London:Whitechapel, 2006] identifies three aspects of Participatory Art: Activation, Authorship, and Community

Antonin Artaud’s Theatre of Cruelty & a drive for the physical experience of the spectacle.

Audience v. Viveur (one who lives)

Nicolas Bourriaud explains that artworks are situated in the “interstice” of the overall system of the economy.

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